Nelly’s Saddlery – Business Background


1.1 Introduction

Nelly’s Saddlery is a proprietorship of Ms Nelly Gee who established this new business on 1st June 2018. Nelly’s Saddlery is a GST-registered horse tack and supplies business that is beginning with just a small range of saddles and horse rugs. The business also provides some basic saddlery repairs and maintenance services. The business sources its products from a number of suppliers.


The business currently sells two types of saddles: All Purpose Saddles, Suede Seat Saddles, and one type of rug: Top Tack DELUXE Rug


Nelly Gee, sole proprietor, has established a reputable and growing business with and has employed two staff members. Being an astute businessperson, Nelly is using Microsoft EXCEL software to maintain the accounting records of the business transactions during the month of June 2018, which is the last month of the Australian financial year.


1.2    Accounting Policies

1.2.1 Nelly’s Saddlery uses accrual accounting for recording transactions and adjustments.

1.2.2 Nelly’s Saddlery uses a perpetual inventory system with weighted average.

1.2.3 Nelly’s Saddlery prepares quarterly Business Activity Statements (BAS) and remits the net GST liability due to the ATO in the month following the end of each quarter. (Note: as this is a new business, Nelly has not yet prepared a BAS and has no liability at the start of June.)

1.2.4 Nelly’s Saddlery has the following depreciation policies:

  • Office Equipment: depreciated over 10 years using reducing balance method at rate of 20% ($2 200 residual value)
  • Computer systems: depreciated over 4 years using straight line method (no residual value)
  • Motor vehicles: depreciated using reducing balance method at the rate of 23% over 8 years ($3 000 residual value)


1.2.5 Nelly’s Saddlery pays employee wages on a weekly basis. Wages are paid on the

Thursday for the previous week. The sales assistant is full time and earns a weekly wage and works Tuesday to Saturday. The saddler is employed on a casual basis and is paid hourly. All employees are paid employer superannuation contribution to their nominated superannuation funds at the rate of 9.5% of gross salary (before deductions). The employees are being paid into the same superannuation fund through an online portal (this means you can account for all superannuation together).


1.2.6 Nelly’s Saddlery records an allowance for doubtful debts that equates to 5% of

Accounts Receivable balance at the end of the year.


1.2.7 Nelly’s Saddlery records all prepaid expenses as assets (prepayments), and then expenses the portion used as end of year adjustments.



2 Accounting System


                 2.1 Journal and Ledgers

Nelly’s Saddlery uses the following journals and ledgers:

Cash Receipts Journal – to record all cash receipts of the business including cash
sales and cash received from debtors
Cash Payments Journal – to record all cash payments of the business including cash purchases, cash payments to creditors
Sales Journal  – to record all credit sales of Inventory
Purchases Journal  – to record all credit purchases of Inventory & other items
General Journal  – to record all other transactions not recorded in other
journals (eg adjusting entries & closing entries)
General Ledger – separate ledger accounts are maintained for each asset,
liability, equity, revenue and expense account
Subsidiary Ledgers – maintained for accounts receivable and accounts payable,
and for inventory, then reconciled against relevant general
ledger accounts


2.2 The business prepares the following Financial Statements:

                Balance Sheet                   – Assets, Liabilities, Owners’ Equity

Income Statement         – Revenue, Expenses, Gross/Net profit or loss

Statement of Changes in Equity – Capital, Drawings

2.3 Chart of Accounts


Nelly’s Saddlery Chart of Accounts is shown below.


Chart of Accounts
Account Name Account Type Usual Balance Account Type
Cash at Bank Asset Debit Current Asset
Accounts Receivable Asset Debit Current Asset
Allowance for Doubtful Debts Contra – Asset Credit Contra – Current Asset
Supplies Asset Debit Current Asset
Inventory Asset Debit Current Asset
Prepaid rent Asset Debit Current Asset
GST Paid Asset Debit Current Asset
Office Equipment Asset Debit Non Current Asset
Accum Dep – Office Contra – Asset Credit Contra – Non Current Asset
Computer Systems Asset Debit Non Current Asset
Accum Dep – Computer Contra – Asset Credit Contra – Non Current Asset
Vehicles Asset Debit Non Current Asset
Accum Dep – Vehicles Contra – Asset Credit Contra – Non Current Asset
Accounts Payable Liability Credit Current Liability
GST Collected Liability Credit Current Liability
Unearned Service Revenue Liability Credit Current Liability
PAYG Tax Payable Liability Credit Current Liability
Superannuation Payable Liability Credit Current Liability
Private health Payable Liability Credit Current Liability
Wages Payable Liability Credit Current Liability
N Gee, Capital Equity Credit Equity
N Gee, Drawings Equity Debit Equity
Sales Revenue Revenue Credit Revenue
Discount Received Revenue Credit Revenue
Service Revenue Revenue Credit Revenue
Cost of Sales Expenses Debit Expenses
Advertising Expense Expenses Debit Expenses
Electricity Expense Expenses Debit Expenses
Doubtful Debts expense Expenses Debit Expenses
Discount Allowed Expense Expenses Debit Expenses
Wages Expense Expenses Debit Expenses
Supplies Expense Expenses Debit Expenses
Rent Expense Expenses Debit Expenses
Depreciation Expense Expenses Debit Expenses
Income Summary Temporary only N/A Temporary only


2.4 Employee Payroll

The Schedule of Employees and their pay rates are shown below along with relevant deductions (eg private health and employer superannuation guarantee).

Staff ID Staff Name Position Private Health ESG Weekly salary Hourly rate
EMP001 B Gee Sales Assistant $22/wk 9.5% $990
EMP002 N Rider Saddler $0 9.5% $38


Calendar of relevant months for calculating payroll:


Mon Tues Wed Thurs  Fri Sat Sun
1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30
Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31


Assume all employees claim the Tax-free threshold and use the calculator included in the EXCEL Student Templates file (Payroll calculator sheet) to calculate the withholding tax. Note: employees began work in the second week of June (5 June).

This can also be found on the ATO site:


3 Business Transactions for June 2018


Date Transaction Details
1-Jun Nelly Gee establishes the business and contibutes $120 000 into the business bank account.
1-Jun Purchase of office equipment (non-current assets) on credit from TMart: total amount for $23 320 (incl GST), estimated residual value of $2 200.
2-Jun Stock bought from SaddleSeat Traders: four (4) All Purpose Saddles in brown for $891 each (incl GST) and three Suede Seat Saddles in black for $1100 each (incl GST). Purchased on credit.
2-Jun Paid cash for quarterly rent in advance (for June – Sept) of $2 860 (incl GST).
2-Jun Purchase of following non-current asset on credit from TechTime:

Computer systems for $22 990 (incl GST), no residual value. To be repaid in twelve equal montly payments.

3-Jun Purchased utility from Mitsubishi (non-current asset) on credit for $25 982 (incl GST), $3000 residual value.
5-Jun Sold one Suede Seat Saddle for $3 520 (incl GST) on credit to Clancey’s Pony Club. Discount terms 2/10, n/30.
5-Jun Paid $2 200 (incl GST) cash for saddlery maintenance supplies from FarmPlus.
7-Jun Sold one All Purpose Saddle and one Suede Seat Saddle for $6 732 (incl GST) cash.
7-Jun Purchased saddles (Inventory) on credit from SaddleSeat Traders: 3x All Purpose Saddles ($858/unit) (incl GST).
8-Jun Sold one All Purpose Saddle for $2 684 (incl GST) on credit to Mr Banjo.
9-Jun Sold two All Purpose Saddles to Clancey’s Pony Club, on credit for $5368 (incl GST). Discount terms.
9-Jun Received $2 541 cash (incl GST) service revenue for saddlery maintenance work.
10-Jun Purchased stock from a Farm expo: twenty (20) Top Tack Rugs for $44 each (incl GST), and six (6) Suede Seat Saddles for $880 each (incl GST). Purchases made with cash.
11-Jun Paid ImagePrint for advertisng, $1650 cash (incl GST).
12-Jun Received payment in full from Clancey’s Pony club.
13-Jun Sold eight (8) Top Tack rugs for $99 each (incl GST), for cash.
14-Jun Paid wages: Weekly salary for B Gee & 18 hours for N Rider. (Total wages can be recorded in single entry.)
19-Jun Nelly Gee withdrew $1300 cash from the business.
20-Jun Sold 2x Suede Seat Saddles to Mr Banjo for $3 190 on credit (incl GST).
21-Jun Sold 1x All Purpose Saddle for $2684 (incl GST) & 1 x Top Tack Rug for $99 (incl GST) on credit to Miss Sunshine. 
21-Jun Received $3 740 cash (incl GST) service revenue for saddlery maintenance work.
21-Jun Paid wages: Weekly salary for B Gee & 23 hours for N Rider.
21-Jun Received payment of $8690 in advance for saddlery work for Paynter’s Pony Club. Work is to be completed over the next month.
25-Jun Mr Banjo made a part payment on his account, paid $4000.
26-Jun Paid electricity invoice for June of $290 (incl GST).
27-Jun Made first month’s payment of the twelve month payment plan for Computer Sys purchase. Received 3% discount for paying on time.
28-Jun Paid wages: Weekly salary for B Gee & 21 hours for N Rider.

4 Adjustments for end of financial year 2018


4.1 The stocktake on 30 June revealed $668 worth of supplies on hand.


4.2 The next wages payment will occur on Thursday 5 July for the employee earnings in the final week of June. N Rider worked for 20 hours between 26th and 30th June; B Gee worked a usual week.


4.3 Calculate the amounts for depreciation expense for each of the three types of non-current Assets: office equipment; computer systems; vehicles (Estimate expense as though assets held for whole of month of June.)


4.4 Calculate and record the adjusting entry for rent for the end of the month given that June rent has been used up.


4.5 During the last week of June, Nelly’s Saddlery earned one third of the advance payment for the Paynter’s Pony Club saddlery work.


4.6 Calculate the Allowance for Doubtful Debts based on 5% of accounts receivable at the end of the year and make the necessary adjusting entry.




5  Accounting Requirements and Instructions


                5.1 Spreadsheet software

                The file on the course Blackboard site (ACC106 Task 2 Student Templates) contains a series         of worksheets that you should use to complete the requirements below. Make changes as             required including formulas and links.

                5.2 Completing the Accounting Cycle

5.2.1 Record all the business transactions from section 3 above in the relevant special journals and post the Account totals to the relevant ledgers using EXCEL linking function. Use the accounts listed in the Chart of Accounts and enter names of the ledger accounts as required. In the ledgers, use formulas to create running totals. DO NOT POST ADJUSTMENTS yet.

5.2.2 Prepare an ‘Unadjusted’ Trial Balance as at 30 June 2018 by linking balances in the ledger accounts to the Trial Balance. It will be a ‘Live’ Trial Balance but at this point it is unadjusted as the Adjustments have not yet been posted. When completed, check the debit and credit columns are equal in the Trial Balance. Then copy and special paste (as values only) the Trial Balance into the Worksheet columns ‘Unadj Trial Balance’. These should not change now as they are raw figures. (Tip: Use Paste Special to paste in as values.)

5.2.3 Record the end of year Adjustments, listed above at section 4, in the Worksheet and complete the Worksheet by calculating balances in the Adjusted Trial Balance columns. Then complete the Income Statement and Balance Sheet columns in the Worksheet.

5.2.4 Record the Adjustments in the General Journal and post these adjustments to the

General Ledger using new accounts as necessary. (This will change the figures in your

Trial Balance which should now match the Adjusted Trial Balance figures in the Worksheet.)

5.2.5 Prepare the closing entries in the General Journal, and post these to the General Ledger. (As with adjustments, this will change your Trial Balance figures if you have linked correctly.  NOW, your Adjusted Trial Balance figures in the Worksheet will NOT match the Trial Balance figures for the Revenue and Expense accounts and totals.)

Remember: for closing, close revenue and expense accounts to the Income Summary Account, then close Income Summary Account to the Capital account and finally, close drawings to the Capital account.

5.2.6 Finally, prepare the Financial Statements for 30 June 2018 by copying or linking the appropriate figures into your Financial Statements. Refer to your textbook or course Learning Materials for guidance on the format of these Statements. For Balance Sheet, use the Classified Balance Sheet in report form as demonstrated on p.184 of the text; and Income Statement and Statement of Changes in Equity as demonstrated on p.240 of the text. (Note, for the Income Statement, there will be three revenue streams including discount received.)



6 Additional Information


                 6.1 Number formats

All amounts should be rounded/truncated to two decimal places. Amounts can be displayed without $ sign. (Use $ sign for Financial Statements only).

                6.2 Journals and Ledgers

Adjustment & closing entries should be posted from the General Journal to the respective General Ledger accounts at the end of the financial year (June 30)

Total columns in the special journals should be posted to the respective General Ledger               accounts at June 30.

Note: In the special journals, all entries that do not belong in one of the account columns as        listed in the template, should be included in the “Other Accounts” columns. These should    then be posted on an individual basis to the respective ledger accounts. (Hint: the journal       templates contain all the account columns as required for this business. However, not all                  accounts have been included in the general ledger template – please add as required.)

Remember: When special journals are used, do NOT also use the General Journal for the same transaction. Also, the subledgers for inventory, AR and AP are not linked to the General ledger but the balances should be checked.

                 6.3 Inventory

Record Inventory purchases and sales in the Subsidiary Ledger Inventory AS THEY OCCUR. As well, record purchases and sales of inventory in the relevant journals (using figures in the Inventory record) and post the Inventory totals from these journals to the General Ledger Inventory account at June 30.

                6.4 Wages

There are two payroll worksheets that can be used to calculate wages. The payroll calculator from the ATO should be used to estimate weekly PAYG withholding tax for each employee. Use the table in the payroll template to calculate relevant amounts for each employee each week.

                6.5 Depreciation

                There is a depreciation worksheet with a table that can be used to calculate depreciation for      the non-current assets. (Tip: depreciation expense is based on the net cost of the asset.)

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